Fluorine-Containing Prolines: Synthetic Strategies, Applications, and Opportunities
J. Org. Chem. 2022, 87 (11), 6961-7005
Fluorinated prolines play an important role in peptide studies, protein engineering, medicinal chemistry, drug discovery, and agrochemistry. Since the first synthesis of 4-fluoroprolines by Gottlieb and Witkop in 1965, their popularity started to grow exponentially. For example, during the past two decades, all isomeric trifluoromethyl-substituted prolines have been synthesized. In this Perspective, chemical properties and applications of fluorinated prolines are discussed. Synthetic approaches to all known fluorine-containing prolines are also discussed and analyzed. This analysis unexpectedly revealed an unsolved problem: in strict contrast to fluoro- and trifluoromethyl-substituted prolines, the corresponding analogues with fluoromethyl and difluoromethyl groups are mostly unknown. At the end of the paper, structures of several interesting, yet unknown, fluorinated prolines are disclosed─a good opportunity for chemists to make them.