The transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are powerful tools for the formation of carbon–carbon bonds. Among these transformations, the Suzuki–Miyaura reaction, which is the transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling between an organo-boron compound and an organic (pseudo)halide, has become the most attractive method since its discovery in 1979. While many organo-boron compounds have been discovered, N-methyliminodiacetic acid MIDA boronates represent tremendously useful building blocks for the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling that has been successfully applied to sequential synthesis of various natural product motifs.
Sulfonyl chlorides are widely used in medicinal chemistry as precursors to pharmacologically relevant sulfonamides. Although the majority of aromatic sulfonyl chlorides are considerably stable and, therefore, commercially available compounds capable of reacting with amines under mild conditions there are many aliphatic and heteroaromatic sulfonyl chlorides that encounter following synthetic problems.
Sulfonyl chlorides are an important class of building blocks in medicinal chemistry, combinatorial chemistry, and pharmacology. Sulfonyl chlorides are largely used to prepare sulfonamides, compounds exhibiting a broad spectrum of biological activities. The overwhelming majority of the marketed sulfonamide drugs are prepared from aromatic sulfonyl chlorides on account of a limited availability of their saturated congeners.
Fluorinated organic compounds are of high interest in biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacology. In many cases the replacement of a hydrogen atom with fluorine in a drug molecule caused 10-fold increase of its biological potency and bioavailability.
Fluorine-substituted amines and amino acids have been extensively used as important building blocks in the design of drugs with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Indeed, the fluorine atom normally lowers basisity of the amine functionality, decreases acute toxicity, and increases the metabolic stability of a target drug.
Organic azides are an important class of synthetic building blocks. In organic chemistry azides are commonly used for introducing an amino-group via Staudinger reaction. With the recent advent of "click-chemistry" azides became enormously popular for their participation in the Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. Because of the high rate of synthetic success of both Huisgen cycloaddition and Staudinger reduction these reactions are often used in combinatorial and medicinal chemistry. Enamine presented the set of azides suitable for click-chemistry transformations earlier.