Cu-Catalyzed Pyridine Synthesis via Oxidative Annulation of Cyclic Ketones with Propargylamine
J. Org. Chem. 2021, 86 (11), 7315-7325
A Cu-catalyzed, easily scalable one-pot synthesis of fused pyridines by the reaction of cyclic ketones with propargylamine is described. The protocol was optimized based on the results of more than 30 experiments. The highest product yields were achieved in i-PrOH as a solvent in the presence of 5.0 mol % CuCl2 in air. In contrast to the well-known Au-catalyzed protocol, our procedure is “laboratory friendly”, cost-effective, and suitable for preparing dozens of grams of fused pyridine-based building blocks and does not require a high-pressure autoclave technique. Decreasing the catalyst amount in the reaction to 1.25 mol % CuCl2 provided a yield comparable to that achieved with 5 mol % catalyst, though a longer reaction time was required. A plausible reaction mechanism was proposed. The scope and limitation of the reaction were studied using 24 different cyclic ketones as starting materials. The fused pyridine yield decreased among cyclic ketones in the following order: six-membered ≫ eight-membered > five-membered ∼ seven-membered. The elaborated reaction conditions demonstrated tolerance to a number of protective functional groups in ketone such as ester, tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc)-protected amine, and acetal moieties.