Scalable Synthesis of Biologically Relevant Spirocyclic Pyrrolidines
ACS Omega 2019, 4 (4), 7498-7515
Synthetic approaches toward multigram preparation of spirocyclic α,α-disubstituted pyrrolidines from readily available starting materials are discussed. It was shown that although a number of synthetic methodologies have been known to date, many of the title compounds remain hardly accessible. The most appropriate literature method (which relied on reaction of imines and allyl magnesium halide, followed by bromocyclization) was identified and optimized. It was found that the method is most fruitful for simple non-functionalized substrates. Two novel approaches based on the Sakurai or Petasis reactions of cyclic ketones, followed by hydroboration–oxidation at the allyl moiety thus introduced, were elaborated. The latter method had the largest scope and was beneficial for the substrates containing organosulfur or protected amino functions. For the synthesis of 4-azaspiro[2.4]heptane, an alternative synthetic scheme commencing from tert-butyl cyclopropanecarboxylate (instead of the corresponding ketone) was developed. It was shown that the whole set of the methodologies developed can be used for the synthesis of various spirocyclic α,α-disubstituted pyrrolidines—advanced building blocks of potential importance to medicinal and agrochemistry—at up to a 100 g scale.