Developing a comprehensive solution aimed to disrupt LARS1/RagD protein-protein interaction
J. Biomol. 2023, 1-12
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are crucial enzymes involved in protein synthesis and various cellular physiological reactions. Aside from their standard role in linking amino acids to the corresponding tRNAs, they also impact protein homeostasis by controlling the level of soluble amino acids within the cell. For instance, leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LARS1) acts as a leucine sensor for the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and may also function as a probable GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for the RagD subunit of the heteromeric activator of mTORC1. In turn, mTORC1 regulates cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, autophagy, and cell growth, and is implicated in various human diseases including cancer, obesity, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Hence, inhibitors of mTORC1 or a deregulated mTORC1 pathway may offer potential cancer therapies. In this study, we investigated the structural requirements for preventing the sensing and signal transmission from LARS to mTORC1. Building upon recent studies on mTORC1 regulation activation by leucine, we lay the foundation for the development of chemotherapeutic agents against mTORC1 that can overcome resistance to rapamycin. Using a combination of in-silico approaches to develop and validate an alternative interaction model, discussing its benefits and advancements. Finally, we identified a set of compounds ready for testing to prevent LARS1/RagD protein-protein interactions. We establish a basis for creating chemotherapeutic drugs targeting mTORC1, which can conquer resistance to rapamycin. We utilize in-silico methods to generate and confirm an alternative interaction model, outlining its advantages and improvements, and pinpoint a group of novel substances that can prevent LARS1/RagD interactions.