Synthesis of 5-(Fluoroalkyl)isoxazole Building Blocks by Regioselective Reactions of Functionalized Halogenoximes
J. Org. Chem. 2019, 84 (24), 15877-15899
A comprehensive study on the synthesis of 5-fluoroalkyl-substituted isoxazoles starting from functionalized halogenoximes is reported. One-pot metal-free [3 + 2] cycloaddition of CF3-substituted alkenes and halogenoximes bearing ester, bromo, chloromethyl, and protected amino groups was developed for the preparation of 5-trifluoromethylisoxazoles. The target 3,5-disubstituted derivatives were obtained in a regioselective manner in good to excellent yield on up to 130 g scale. 5-Fluoromethyl- and 5-difluoromethylisoxazoles were synthesized by late-stage deoxofluorination of the corresponding 5-hydroxymethyl or 5-formyl derivatives, respectively, in turn prepared via metal-free cycloaddition of halogenoximes and propargylic alcohol. An alternative approach based on nucleophilic substitution in 5-bromomethyl derivatives was found to be more convenient for the preparation of 5-fluoromethylisoxazoles. Reaction of isoxazole-5-carbaldehydes with the Ruppert–Prakash reagent was used for the preparation of (β,β,β-trifluoro-α-hydroxyethyl)isoxazoles. Utility of described approaches was shown by multigram preparation of side-chain functionalized mono-, di-, and trifluoromethylisoxazoles, for example, fluorinated analogues of ABT-418 and ESI-09.